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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

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[ri'dikjul?s]
Moreover, a “turnaround in the short run is unlikely”, given China’s efforts to rebalance its economy from exports towards consumption (thereby reducing demand for imports of intermediate inputs), reinforced by “government policy to stimulate the use of domestic suppliers” and rising protectionism elsewhere, he argues.
美联储退出购债计划的道路是否会经历坎坷?

清华-欧洲工商管理学院的EMBA项目始于2007年,并于2012年进入英国《金融时报》排行榜,首次入围就直接冲至第四名。此后两年,该项目先后排名第二和第三,并最终在今年拔得头筹。
Song “Beautiful China”(Sha Baoliang and Xu Qianya)
毋庸置疑,改造比创造容易。任何曾经对着白纸一筹莫展的人都知道这一点。但是,在过去七年里,时尚界对60年代的普遍模仿至少暴露出,这个行业缺乏想象力——不只是对于服装和消费者缺乏想象力,而且对于文化与服装的关系也缺乏想象力。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

2017资本市场热度延续 家居企业上市潮涌动

Grains have fallen about 3 per cent.
Of the graduates to have been through the scheme, 42 per cent have not persisted with teaching. But Teach First says even those who have left the profession remain loyal to the programme’s values.
单词creative 联想记忆:

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Intel
我经常心情不好
Wang Ki-young, a director at South Korea’s culture ministry, said on Friday that Chinese authorities had ordered tourism agencies in Beijing to halt tours to South Korea from mid-March. Mr Wang said the move would be expanded to other provinces.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 沙泽勒编导的音乐片《爱乐之城》是当晚的得奖热门,所获14项提名平了奥斯卡史上的纪录。沙泽勒获得最佳导演奖。而埃玛?斯通(Emma Stone)凭借她在这部由狮门娱乐(Lionsgate)制作的影片中的表演,赢得了最佳女主角奖。此外,《爱乐之城》还获得了最佳配乐和最佳原创歌曲奖。
  • “一带一路”助力中国建材“走出去”新阶段
  • Julia Hartz
  • 商合杭高铁正式开始铺轨
  • 从智能家居的“痛点”,看中国制造的升级大戏
  • “候选人的能力并不能用他们的年龄来衡量”,桑尼伯恩告诉《人物》(美国杂志)说,”尽管唐纳德·特朗普是当选美国总统的人中最年长的,但是“他的推文就像幼儿园小朋友一样”。“
    Nearly half of the Kings' roster should have been traded following the Cousins teardown move and yet none were. Nice. Bring on Buddy Mania. Plenty of good seats still available.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 楼市新政效果显现 广州二手楼市恢复常态, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

灯都古镇迎“降租狂潮” 如何寻找新的价值增长点

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

雷士照明发布吴长江擅自贷款调查结果 逾3亿“打水漂”

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 室内环境:这栋砖砌结构、灰泥粉饰并铺着瓷砖屋顶的两层楼房屋由Dorr & Dorr公司设计,于1916年完工,近15年内曾经翻修。该房屋采用了半牧场、半工匠艺术的设计风格,运用了简洁的线条、开敞式空间、典雅的木制品和彩色玻璃等设计。翻修工程由明尼阿波利斯市Sala建筑公司的约瑟夫·麦茨勒(Joseph Metzler)完成。
    James Bond Themes 9. "The Man with the Golden Gun" by Lulu
  • 根据迪拜政府的最新预测,在迪拜旅游的游客今年将消费313亿美元,远远超过伦敦游客消费的198亿美元。伦敦在游客消费榜单中排名第二。
    "A total of 297 projects will be carried out in Tongzhou, such as building new subway lines and expressways, and improving ecologies," Lu Yan, director of the Beijing Municipal Commission of Development and Reform, said at a news conference on Wednesday.
    不会。华尔街策略师预测美国政府的10年期借贷成本将在未来一年攀升至3%以上,这话就像尴尬的办公室聚会一样是圣诞节那段时间的固定节目。鉴于美联储退出量化宽松和美国减税,今年的预测看起来更有可能实现。然而,压低通胀和长期债券收益率的长期重大因素依然存在,并且仍然被低估。2018年美联储将至少加息三次,但10年期收益率不会突破3%。
    [p?'lu:n]
    其中包括“qwerty”(键盘字母顺序,排名第4)、“admin”(管理员,排名第11)和“login”(登录,排名第14)。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 新型建筑材料未来市场潜力无限
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 改革开放40年我国住房领域发展综述:住有所居 居有所安

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

报名窗口将于周六关闭,报名成功者须参加11月29号的2016年国家公务员考试,考试通过后才可以参加明年3月的面试。
To ease women's concerns following the implementation of the two-child policy, the country should put in place more explicit regulations banning discrimination against women. These could include requiring companies to have a certain percentage of female employees, as well as tax cuts or other preferential measures to encourage employers to effectively implement the extended maternity leave regulation for female workers.
斯托特说,对于2015年破纪录的气温来说,当前的厄尔尼诺现象可能只负有10%的责任。厄尔尼诺现象令太平洋海水变暖,是自然界一种经常性现象。
单词global 联想记忆:
节目25 歌曲《风吹麦浪》,李健 孙俪
如果法国总统奥朗德在2012年上任后没有主动减薪30%,他的排名还能更靠前。
It was visible in practically every brand that edged from the 1960s to 1970s for the season currently in stores, including Alberta Ferretti, Pucci and Etro.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 这使得“教育科技”初创公司(比如硅谷的Coursera和伦敦的FutureLearn)在市场上有了立足点。预计它们在2018年将继续这种模式,或许会与某个实体高等教育机构合并。
  • 农村集体产权制度改革将覆盖八成的县
  • 201401/271211.shtmlThe worst password of 2013 is '123456' according to new research.
    Since its first release in 1995, many new versions and sequels have been created. However, fans say none could replace the breath-taking and tragic tale of the original.
  • 智慧家居在中国安家落户
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 9. Am I spending too much? Overspending can lead to stress, clutter, and financial complications. It can also turn into a nasty habit over time. Saving money is an excellent practice and you will more than likely be glad you did in case of an emergency.
    但是我们波士士顿波士顿咨询集团不认为中国本次改革会导致中国经济不稳定。我们相信中国经济在习主席的领导下会持续高速增长。我们相信上个星期的改革(三中全会)会确保中国经济从现在一直增长到(至少)2020年。根据我们已掌握的资料,我们预测中国经济在未来10年会增加4万亿美金(而书中说是6.4万亿。2012中国GDP为8.3万亿美金)。如果加上印度,亚洲两大国未来的增长总量会达到10万亿美金。在此期间,中产阶级会迅速膨胀,进而增强对经济增长的乐观态度。当然,没有人能完美地预测未来,在我们的近期的一本关于中国和印度经济发展的书中(《Trillion Prize:Captivating the Newly Affluent in China and India》),我们也描述了一些经济增长缓慢的例子。不过总体上我们还是对中国的未来保持乐观态度。
  • 中国为包括棉花、糖和玉米在内的大宗商品设置的最低价格过高,当这些价格偏离市场价格时,政府鼓励了过度生产以及强劲的进口。
    Justin Bieb er just made tens of thousands of more dollars -- from his hair. The 'Baby' singer's locks sold on eBay yesterday with a final bid of $40,688.
  • 统计数据显示,在2009年之前,全球研发支出以每年约7%的速度增长,但在2014年放缓了4%。
    改革就是要解放和发展生产力,调动广大人民的积极性,让群众得到实惠,为政之要就是要舍小利、顾大义、顺民心。
  • 乔布斯靠在一台“麦金托什”个人电脑上在股东大会谈笑风生,1984年1月,旧金山,库比蒂诺
    9.消防员
    The Asia-Pacific region was the main driver of international growth at movie houses, up 13%, and China accounted for nearly half of the entire Asia-Pacific total.
  • [pi'tr?uli?m]
    "Even though these two researchers worked independently of one another, the combination of Shapley's basic theory and Roth's empirical investigations, experiments and practical design has generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets," the academy said.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 租房者离品质租赁有多远 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

社科院:上半年商品房库存或比去年下降约0.5亿平

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

雄安新区第二批54个村征迁安置工作启动

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

龙江“两展一会”推家具行业“走出去”

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

深圳新房均价连续15个月 约为5.5万元/平米

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 衡量散货大宗商品贸易的波罗的海干散货运价指数(BDI)已经触及历史低位。2014年超过美国成为世界最大贸易国的中国本月报告,1月出口和进口都出现两位数下降。正在经历一个多世纪以来最严重衰退的巴西从中国的进口暴跌。
  • The truth is, to shut our door to the outside world would not help China do its own things well, so China will continue to open to the outside world, with this opening-up being a gradual process.
  • 北京社保参保人可自主变更社保对账单获取方式

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 出口的提振在很大程度上源自对美出口,其价值自3月份以来首次出现同比增长,同比增6.9%,至368亿美元。在其他出口目的地中,对欧盟出口同比增长5.1%,至299亿美元,对日本出口同比增长3.2%,至122亿美元。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • The pickup in consumption in turn will entice businesses to hire and invest more to keep up with rising sales. The result: The U.S. is likely to grow more than 3% for the first time since 2005.
    单词beneficial 联想记忆:
    In this case, the Lakers got a reasonable return for their top trade piece, prepared to give their young players like D'Angelo Russell and Brandon Ingram greater responsibilities down the stretch, and hunkered down for a tank that just might land UCLA star Lonzo Ball.
  • Floodwaters surround homes near the Mantoloking Bridge the morning after Sandy hit Mantoloking, New Jersey.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 潘通在解释这一选择时提到以下这些因素:“主张性别平等和流动性的社会运动;消费者越来越喜欢把色彩当作一种表达方式;这一代人不太在意被认定为某一种类型或遭到评判;公开的数字信息交流让我们看到颜色使用的不同方式。”
  • 德豪雷士布局智能家居O2O 线上线下齐发力
  • According to Brett Mills, senior lecturer in film and television studies at the University of East Anglia in the UK, Friends was the first sitcom that directly addressed the problems faced by twenty-somethings. Watching the show feels like reading the story of a young person’s life.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 家具设计外观侵权之惑 维权难在何处
  • Household substance abuse
  • 美涂士:涂料行业的谋变之道——专访公司董事、副总裁任德忠
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

广西加快发展住房租赁市场 完善住房供给

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 百名买房者遭遇陷阱:要房房是坑 退钱没有钱
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 杭州萧山高价地楼盘亏本入市 还有房企变相降价卖房
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

The mega-retailer didn't have a whole lot to complain about in fiscal 2010. Profits were up and, thanks to its sales, the company once again climbed to the top of the Fortune 500. Same-store sales were about flat for the year, but compared with Target's 2.5% decline, flat is good. Most remarkable was Wal-Mart's image overhaul. It helped that former CEO Lee Scott beefed up health care coverage for employees, thought more about the environment and became a public presence. Certain critics will never be placated and fiscal first-quarter results weren't the greatest. But there's no denying Scott left new CEO Mike Duke a company in fighting form.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

谁会与一位王室成员击掌呢?尽管他年龄不大。
教育部也已采取了一些措施,例如取消考试成绩、将作弊行为记入个人档案中。
adolescent
一年一度的《全球贸易保护报告》(Global Trade Protection Report)显示,2015年美国企业发起了43起反倾销案件,以及另外22起旨在征收反补贴税的反补贴调查。美国在这两方面均处于领先位置,超越了分别在2014年和2013年发起最多案件的印度和巴西。
Ellen is talented, wonderfully spontaneous, and knows how to entertain a worldwide audience. She’s a big fan of the Oscars; we’re huge fans of hers. It’s a perfect match.
But economists generally expect the momentum of the recent past to resume and continue once storm distortions abate. The 45 economists who responded to The Wall Street Journal's latest monthly forecasting survey saw the jobless rate falling to 7.8% by next June and 7.5% by the end of 2013. Some say job growth could accelerate from its slow pace. 'I think businesses are going to have to hire,' said Bob Baur, an economist with Principal Global Investors.[qh]
在10月份的第三场总统大选辩论中,两位总统候选人没教养地拒绝与对方握手问好或道别。
单词pressure 联想记忆:
vi. 过活,进展,进食
《美国谍梦》(The Americans):FX频道的这部电视剧以里根时代为背景,它和剧中两位伪装成美国郊区夫妻的克格勃间谍一样具有欺骗性:第二季表面上看是冷战惊悚剧,实际上是关于爱情、家庭、友谊和猜忌的情节剧。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

南京“凶宅”别墅 拍出786万元高价

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 14. “Grandma” (Paul Weitz)
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Entertainer of the year: Luke Bryan
  • 德豪润达携手基金拟收购境外照企 涉及金额估最高60亿
  • Shortly after Cook's op-ed, the Senate voted to approve the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, which would make it illegal to discriminate against LGBT employees in the workplace. The legislation will now be sent to the House for consideration.
  • 中秋66城成交面积下跌超四成 房企压力剧增
  • Winners: Pelicans

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 北新建材龙牌矿棉吸声板销量突破“双百”大关
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • When you are at work, you are supposed to be productive. Otherwise, it's a waste of your time and the company's money. If you are bored and surfing the web most of your work day, you may want to think about looking into job options where you'll get more stimulation and responsibilities.
  • 经济学家的预期中值为同比上涨0.9%。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

如何辨识建材环保标志

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