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李克强:民生本身就是天大的事情 抓住重点难点问题一件一件去做

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 广州户籍家庭公租房实行“三调整一完善” (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

北京市住建委:2017年全年实现棚户区改造4.95万户

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

亚太地区是地区国家共有的家园,我们不希望、也不愿意看到冷战思维下所谓“选边站队”的事情发生。
我的饮食健康吗?我们所吃的食物种类很大程度上会影响我们在身体和情绪上的感觉。食用过多垃圾食品会导致偏执,使人精力降低。反之,饮食健康则会使人有更好的情绪和更高涨的劲头。
在发达国家低利率和中国对大宗商品旺盛需求助燃下实现的多年增长被认为正在结束,导致国际清算银行(BIS)的经济学家警告,随着借贷成本上升,将会出现负面溢出效应。
谎言6:我29岁。说谎原因:29岁听起来比30岁要年轻多了。
她向BBC透露称:“他们看到了一些非常可怕的事情,但是他们将在很长一段时间内继续接触这类事情。”
The first drone can be traced back to 1916 when British inventor Archibald Low designed and flew the first unmanned radio-controlled vehicle. The drone was made to counterattack German Zeppelin airships, and it also carried out ground attacks during World War I. It was made with wood and tin, its wings taken from the lower wing of another biplane. Overall, the drone was somewhat unsuccessful because the noise from its engine interfered with its radio. The Sopwith Aircraft Company also tried making a drone in 1916. They placed the radio equipment at the tail so that the engine would not interfere with its signal, but their drone never flew as it was damaged in an accident on the ground. Low would try flying his drone again in 1917 when he flew it in front of some senior military officers. It was launched from the back of a lorry and flew for some time before crashing due to engine failure, almost killing the military officers present.
The best of 2015

syndrome
魔术队倒是可上可下,并且他们现在正在走下坡路。现在,阿龙-戈登和尼古拉-武切维奇被从板凳席上拉了出来并且马里奥-海佐尼亚被雪藏了。
加快改善生态环境特别是空气质量,是人民群众的迫切愿望,是可持续发展的内在要求。必须科学施策、标本兼治、铁腕治理,努力向人民群众交出合格答卷。
That's particularly striking in Brazil, with its highly mixed population that has more blacks than any country with the exception of Nigeria. More than half of Brazil's population self-identified themselves as black or of mixed-race in the 2010 census.
adj. 傲慢的,自大的

Footnotes

  • LED照明杀价惨 UV LED受市场青睐
  • Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew announced the plans for the new redesign Wednesday. Lew said the Treasury Department will launch a social media campaign dubbed "The New 10" to solicit ideas on whose portrait should be chosen for the new bill, along with a series of public meetings. He will reveal his decision sometime this year.

1.Rain Man
总之,勒布朗在过去的9年里能很好地强化他那野兽般的身躯,我们感到很欣慰。
Dealers: Car dealers work toward reducing the paperwork involved in buying a car and the hours it takes to fill it out. That will give them more time to devote to upselling add-ons such as extended warranties, paint and fabric protection, and rust-proofing.
当时的杜兰特身高6尺9寸,体重只有185磅,我很惊讶在高中赛打到一半时他没有被撞坏。幸运的是,杜兰特不靠在大前锋位置上力量抗衡赚钱,他主要依赖他拿手的急停跳投。
上榜理由:探险之旅
adj. 反对的,敌对的 v. 和 ... 起冲突,反抗

警惕炒房势力转战租房市场

References

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